Inspector Daulatram Jogawat left the hospital on Monday, and thanked Shobha De for making him famous.
The writer had tweeted a picture of Mr Jogawat last month, saying the police in Mumbai had planned “heavy security” for local elections.
The viral tweet led to Saifee Hospital offering to pay for his treatment.
The hospital said Mr Jogawat was doing well after the surgery, and can lose up 80kg (176lb) in the next year. He weighed 180kg before the operation.
Bariatric surgery, also known as weight loss surgery, is used as a last resort to treat people who are dangerously obese (having a body mass index of 40 or above or 35 plus other obesity-related health conditions).
Sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass is where some of the stomach is removed or the digestive system is re-routed past most of the stomach.
Saifee hospital made headlines in January when it started treating an Egyptian woman, believed to be the world’s heaviest, at 500kg (1,102lb).
Mr Jogawat told the Hindustan Times that he got “the opportunity to come all the way to Mumbai for treatment” because of De’s tweet.He added that he started putting on weight because of medical complications, and not because he ate too much.
“Honestly speaking, my weight never came in between my duty because I was physically active and had the brains to solve crimes. I was fairly rewarded for my work,” Mr Jogawat said.
De later defended her tweet, saying she did not intend to offend anybody.